his121: Civil War

Posted in his121 by bnmng on 2010 03/02

Kansas and Nebraska:

Steven Douglass actively promotes transcontinental railroad. Proposed a more Northern route through Nebraska Territory. Sought federal funding. Since it was north of the Missouri Compromise, Southerners disapproved.

Douglass rewrote the bill to split the territory in two, Nebraska and Kansas. Theoretically Nebraska would be free and Kansas would be slave, but decision is left up to popular sovereignty In 1854, proposal passed. Quickly realized that Kansas was good land. North and South try to dominate Kansas by recruiting settlers.

Pro-slavery people elect a legislator,illegally to lay down pro-slavery laws. Anti-slavery people create a second government. November 1855: Bloody Kansas. Violence between pro-and anti slavery factions. Spills over to increase animosity between North and South.

Slavery issue is not the only issue Americans are concerned about. Strong anti-immigration/ anti-Catholic feelings. Know Nothing party emerges. Know Nothing party refuses to discuss slavery. 1852, party goes public as American Party. Splits among slavery issue. Despite short life, third party causes collapse of two-party system. Disbanded and in 1854 several people join the new Republican party.

Republicans are first party to openly oppose slavery. They’re anti South. 1856 Election: Democrats are the only party to have any kind of established unity and experience, so they get their candidate Buchanan elected.

Dredd Scott case: Slave owned by U.S. Army Surgeon. Army traveled extensively with Scott. Scott sues for freedom based on the fact that he had been taken to free states. Lost case. Decision had the effect of saying that Congress could not ban slavery in territories. Northerners, Republicans feel like they just lost a big battle. Conspiracy theories.

1857: Rise of John Brown. Heads East from KS and tries to create a slavery rebellion in the South. Has backing of abolitionists known as “secret 6”. Plan includes capturing arsenal at Harper’s Ferry. Seize arsenal in 1859. Shootout occurs. Most of Brown’s followers are shot or captured. Brown later hanged. Rebellion was doomed to failure due to poor planning.

Many Northerners viewed Brown as a martyr. Southerners were terrified and repulsed by his actions. More and more Southerners start to view the possibility of a Northerner president as th end of the South.

1860 Election: Some planned to disrupt the convention. Delegates from five states walked out of convention. Two other Southern states walked out. Republicans remained unified. Lincoln wins.

SC is first state to seceed in Dec 1860. 1861, six other states vote to leave. New Country “Confederate States of America” elect president Jefferson Davis

Lincoln & other Northerners was hopeful that South would change mind. Upper South states supported Union. VA, KT, MD, … Within seeding states, US maintained control of forts including Ft Sumter. Confederates want Union out. Ft Sumter under command of General Anderson. South buildup forces around Ft Sumter. Lincoln tries to get food to Ft Sumter. PJT Beauregard receives orders to turn any supplies back. 1861 Confederate batteries fire on Ft. Ft surrenders.

Although Upper South initially supported Union, they would not allow Northern states through. Still some slave states doe not secede, MD KY MO. Some states are split and actually support both sides.

Civil War. Both sides not well prepared. 1/3 US Officers resign commissions and fight for South. There are only 3 US Navy vessels in home waters. US Army is scattered. But still US Army is better prepared than South. South doesn’t have a standing army or tested government.

Both sides call for volunteers. Lincoln wanted 75000 men for three months. Both sides thought war would be over quickly. Initial response was overwhelming. South actually turned people away.

Vast majority of soldiers in war are state volunteers.

As war progresses, gradual decline in part to deplorable conditions. Both sides instigate a draft. South 1862, N 1863. About 10 Percent of Southern men fought for North. There were even regiments for North that were formed in the South.

Ideology: South is more fragmented than North in justifying war. Different reasons. South sees themselves as following footsteps of Patriots. States Rights, Slavery, and defending home & hearth. Better focus in North. Most Union soldiers “fighting to preserve the Union”. After 63, more and more Union soldiers would say “fighting to end slavery”, but still majority are preserving the union.

Among Northern plans: Increase Navy and blockade South. Cut off economy and supplies.
Another plan: Anaconda plan: Winfield Scott’s plan. North invades South and gains control of MS river. Cuts South in two.
Third Goal: Capture Richmond Virginia. Outdated form of warfare believing that capturing capital wins the war.

South strategy is to persevere. Believe N will give up. Many Southerners realize plan is crapshoot. North had advantage in several areas, including manpower.

Soldiers came from all works of life. Companies formed locally, leading to tightly knit groups.

10 Companies are a regiment. Regiments become brigades. Regiments often refered to by number; brigades often by commander. In South, where States Rights dominate, Brigades are organized by state (Brigades formed by regiments from same states). In North, Brigades are mixed. Brigades combine to divisions. Divisions create Army Cores, which create Field Armies. Both sides maintained several Armies on the Field.

South Army of N. Virginia in the Eastern Theater and Tennessee in West. Main Union Army East: Potomac. West: Tennessee and Cumberland. South names after states, North names after rivers. Battles generally named the same, but it’s not a hard and fast rule.

Lot of reliance on Calvary for reconnaissance type activities. Also reliance on artillery .

Training consisted of lots of drilling in marching and formation.. Surprisingly little training in using weapons.

New gun appears. Still using flint-locks in beginning, but Percussion Rifle Muscat takes over. Better loading system. Uses percussion caps instead of loose powder. First use of conical, vs round, bullet. Bullet starts off smaller than barrel (like muskat), but expands during ignition and seals gap (like rifle).

More advanced weapons also appear but for specialized purposes. Infantry is mainstay of battlefield. Troops are still fighting in rows. As time goes on, troops learn to take advantage of terrain. Both sides start using fortifications. Beginning of trench warfare.

Trenches good for defending but not for advancing parties. New weapons responsible for heavy casualties among advancing parties.

Quality of leadership varied widely on both sides. John Bell Hood had severe medical problems and was drugged up on opium: Braxton Bragg was crazy.

Lincoln goes through several generals. 1863 finally settles on Meade. Western generals: Grant & Sherman.

South tries to get Britain and/or France to recognize them. There are reasons for British to support the South. Southern cotton supplies British textile mills. South comes up with “King/Cotton” diplomacy. Disastrous idea. Will use cotton as bargaining chip. Threatens Brits with withholding cotton. But Brits have already stockpiled cotton, and turned to Egyptian cotton. Effects South during and after war and affects US Economy.

Trent affair. North and Britain almost go to war. To confederate diplomats enroute to Britain. Trent is stopped by US and confederate diplomats taken off. US backed down.

East 1861 & 62: Potomac goal to capture Richmond. 1861 Battle of Mananas / Bull run. Confederate army commanded by Beauregard. Union Army McDowell. Union starts strong but Confederates turn tables and defeat Union Army. Civilians actually watched battle. Both sides realized lack of training was issue. In 1862 McClellan replaces McDowell. Peninsula campaign: Use Williamsburg Peninsula to get to Richmond. Pretty good plan. Initial confrontation at York town. Confederates abandon Yorktown. Another engagement in Williamsburg. Jo Johnston retreats to Richmond. McClellan pursues almost to city limits. Johnston launches major attach at Seven Pines of Fair Oaks. Johnston is very seriously wounded and can’t continue. Replaced by Robert E Lee. Robert E Lee is unknown and doesn’t have a great reputation: “Granny Lee” and “King of Spades”. But Lee launches major counter offensive, results in Seven Days Battle. McClellan wins several battles but gives up attempts to take Richmond. Second Battle of Mananas & Bull Runs. Lee wins stunning victory. Following Sept 1862 Lee invades MD. Attempts to push through MD into PA. Trying win major battle on N soil and gain notice of Britain and France. Problem with MD campaign happened when senior officer lost his copy of his battle plans. Two Union Solders found the package. Had McClellan been less cautious, might have won war quickly, but intelligence is too good to be true. Lee realizes problem and retreats to Sharps Creek. Bloodiest battle. Lee outnumbered but fights well. Still Lee knows he can’t hold the position, so Antietam is a victory for North. Horrific cost in lives 18500 lives.

Antietam produced significant results. Gave up on Britain and France recognition. Gave Lincoln opportunity to announce emancipation. Lincoln felt he needed a victory. Nov 22 1862. The emancipation was all smoke and mirrors. Only freed slaves inside confederacy. Purely symbolic but has a psychological effect. Encourages Southern slaves to support North. Raises enthusiasm of Northern abolitionists
McClellan and Lincoln have a falling after Antietam. Lincoln replaces McClellan with Burside, who knows he’s not the greatest commander. Burnside performs poorly in battle against Lee in Fredericksberg. 1862 ends with another Union defeat.

In the West 1861 and 1862: Northern goal: Anaconda plan. First major N victories capture of Ft Henry and Donalson. Control of rivers that penetrated deep into South. North soon takes Nashville. Big victory because Nashville. These successes were under Ulysses S. Grant. Grant pushes South. Surprised by General Sidney Johston. Battle of Shiloh. Big fight. Looks like Confederate victory in beginning but Grant reorganizes and counter attacks, and defeats Confederates. Shiloh is first major battle with vicous fighting and heavy casualties.

Also in April Theargoot wins victories. In New Orleans. In June Memphis falls. Only Vicksburg remains as major Southern river city. In Eastern Tenn. North tries to divide South further. Goal to completely disrupt rail traffic. First part of campaign to capture Chattanooga. Than South to Atlanta.

Murfreesboro/ Stones River: Also looks like Confederate win in beginning but Union wins in the end.

1863 in East. Burnside is re leaved and replaced by “Fighting Joe Hooker” Blows what might have been the most brilliant maneuver in Civil War. Flanks Lee. But instead of attacking, takes defensive position. Lee confronts Hooker and attacks Chancellorsville. Lee severely defeats Union. Stonewall Jackson mortally wounded.

Bolstered by Chancellorsville, Lee heads North. 75000 men march N. Trying to draw Union out of Virginia and allow farmers to get crop in. Trying to gain control of Northern supplies. Trying to scare North. Still looking for British and French recognition. Hooker replaced by Meade. Armies meet in Gettysburg. July 1st. Gettysburg was accidental, neither side planned major battle in Gettysburg. But Gettysburg rages for three days. Union took on High ground. Lee launches probing attacks looking for weak spots. Decides to attack center under General Picket. South fails. Lee defeated retreats to Virginia. Ruined Lees plans to invade North. Gettysburg viewed as turning point of war, but at the time people didn’t see Gettysburg as turning point.

West: Attention on Vicksburg. Grant given command to capture city. Wants to march around Vicksburg and attach from Landward side. Ultimately Lee gets into position. Seige at Vicksburg is nasty. Lots of woman and children in city. Lee cuts off supplies to the city. Pemberton surrenders Vicksburg on July 4th.

Political front. Not smooth for either side. Northerners tired of war. Opposition movement in North: “Peace Democrats”. Called “Copperheads” by others. Tried to disrupt war effort. Discouraged enlistments. Peace Democrats put of McClellan to run for President. If McClellan elected, N will start peace talks with South. Republicans join with “War Democrats” to create coalition party known as “Union Party”. Union party bolstered by successes and support from soldiers. Early Absenttee Voters largely responsible for Lincoln’s victory.

South also tired of war. People loosing their farms. Economy going downhill. South not well focused. Pockets of Union support. In Western Virginia, breaks off from Virginia and asks to be part of Union. Southerners unhappy with draft. Economy bad. Confederates look for ways to raise funds, unsuccessful start printing money. Causes rampant inflation. By end of war prices have risen 9000 percent! Many Southerners are States Rights advocates, which causes lack of cohesion between states. States horde supplies needed by Confederate, don’t give needed man-power support.

People in South do realize that central control is needed. Richmond tries to gain power. Ironically means South adapts many policies that they were fighting against to begin with.

During the course of the war, South makes improvements in industry.

Shortages & lack of food cause riots.

Black Americans 1862 second confiscation act calls for black regiments in Union Army. Black troops were lesser paid and supplied, but there is a huge participation among Black. Runaway slaves join Union, depleats South of workers. Some Black units have Black Officers. Confederate also relies of black soldiers. Consideration given to arming slaves. Patric Claiborne feels slaves should be enlisted, trained, and promised freedom. March 1865 Confederate gov’t starts enlisting slaves. 2 regiments in Richmond.

Both sides rely heavily on Navy.


his121: Study Guide for Final

Posted in his121 by bnmng on 2010 02/26

Topics of Study for the Final Exam

American Indians. Focus will be on Eastern Indians. Know the Indian situation in general. Know about the developing Indian policy on the U.S. Government to 1851, the relevant Acts of Congress and Supreme curt decisions, the varying views of white people towards Indians, the various problems and conflicts that arose and how they were resolved, the main eastern tribes, key people, both Indian and white, and key events.

The American West. Know about the various land ordinances of the 1780s. Know the different territorial acquisitions (in terms of when, why, how, and under what circumstances they were aquired, the problems associated with them, and the motivating philosophies). Know about life on the Oregon Trail. Know about the various explorers, the Mountain Men, the Texas Revolution, the Mexican War, and the different trails leading west.

Slavery and Abolition. Know about what slavery was like in the 19th century, how it differed between regions and from earlier times, what the various responses of slaves were to their situation, the various plans and views on ending slavery, the arguments for and against slavery, leading figures, both pro and anti-slavery, abolitionist organizations, and abolitionist methods.

Everyday Life. Know about the material culture (i.e. objects and their relationship to American’s lives), architecture, education, medicine, family, women, how things changed and why during the first fifty years of the 19th century, and the effects this had on the American way of life.

The Coming of the Civil War. (much of this overlaps with the slavery and western topics) Know about the key sectional issues, the Acts of Congress pertaining to new states and western territories, Supreme Court decisions, how the slavery issue influenced things, the states’ rights issues, the differenet political parties, political leaders, and Presidents, and what they believed, and the political situation in terms of the balance of power in Congress.

The Civil War. Know about the differences between the North and South, why these were significant, and what effect they had on the outcome of the war. Know they key battles, key generals, stragegies, important social and political events and issues, political parties and leaders, soldier life, and Acts of Congress. Know the military and naval technological advances made during the war. (See Lists).

Readings for the Final Exam

Henretta, Fourth Edition

Chapter 6. Pages 179-180.
Chapter 7. Pages 206-208, 209-212.
Chapter 8. Pages 232-244 (skip inset on page 235).
Chapter 9. Pages 279-280.
Chapter10. Pages 302-306.
Chapter 11. Pages 335-339.
Chapter 12. Pages 349-375 (skip inset on page 359).
Chapter 13. Pages 377-405 (skip insets on pages 398 and 403).
Chapter 14. Pages 407-435 (skip insets on pages 413 and 422).

Voices from History
Documents #42, 50, 52, 58, 59, 62, 64, & 66.

Civil War Battles to Know
Eastern Theater
1st Manassas / 1st Bull Run*
The Seven Days
2nd Manassas / 2nd Bull Run
Sharpsburg / Antietam *
The Wilderness
Spotsylvania Court House
Cold Harbor

Western Theater
Forts Henry and Donelson
Murfreesboro / Stones River
Kennesaw Mountain

Far West
Gloria Pass

Civil War Generals to Know
Irvin McDowell
Winfield Scott
John Pope
Ambrose Burnside
Joseph Hooker
George Meade
William T. Sherman
George Thomas
Philip Sheridan
William Rosecrans
Ulysses Grant
George McClellan

J.E.B. Stuart
Robert E. Lee
James Longstreet
Joseph Johnston
Albert Sydney Johnston
Braxton Bragg
P.G.T. Beauregard
John Bell Hood
Jubal Early
John Pemberton
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

his121: 2010 prior to Feb 25

Posted in his121 by bnmng on 2010 02/25